Water. and Air. That’s what this blog will deal with. The properties of Water and the impact Water has on Land and on Air, and Air on Water. All impacted by our Sun. What we can Do with them together. What we can Use them all for… like Turning greenhouse gases into clean new climate remedial Energy.
Cause Reducing, Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change is not anywhere nearly enough, not functional, therefore infeasible. A dead-end street. Reusing greenhouse gas intrinsic Carbon, on the contrary, is all the more functional and feasible. So the wise [wo]men’s word is Reusing — Not Reducing. Sound-alikes, in this context however in fact antonyms. Read on in this and our other (so far in all 11) posts, and You’ll grasp the full sense.
In the USA Today, April 17 of 2013 issue, Elon Musk (PayPal, SpaceX, Tesla, Hyperloop, SolarCity, OpenAI) says “The nation needs to stop denying that global warming exists and develop more sustainable transportation”. Speaking out of his interest in the electric car industry, he is both right and wrong: his environmental scope is much too narrow to fill out the picture (other than perhaps of car making). His words in the same article of “[…] the most dangerous experiment in history […] to see how much carbon dioxide the atmosphere can handle before there is an environmental catastrophe” echo hollow as he avoids to embrace the global origins of fossil exhaust greenhouse gases. Knowing that the entire road-sea-air transportation sector stands for no more than 14% of global fossil emissions, and private cars and taxis for only 7%, evading our climate warming problem obviously does not exactly fall by the wayside because of our choice of car propellants. Undeniably, he’s right about “the nation” needing to stop denying global warming, and this goes for all nations, and not just stop denying but foremost stop disregarding it — for while denial comes out of stupidity or a vicious mindset or both (lost people), disregard comes out of anaesthesizing our conscience (complicit people). Thus, expanding Musk’s electric cars scope to the total global fossil fuel emissions, we’re not helped by no matter how great a percentage of electric vehicles, be it on road, marine, or air-bound.
|Fully realizing this is the first and foremost requisite for our world to make amends and move away from the climate abyss. In doing so, we need truly credible, independent and competent role models to trust and look up to, to be inspired by and whose telling and powerful agendas to join. For what we need is to see the whole picture — the coherent, adjacent, interrelated fields of relevant facts and perspectives of view in order to perceive the full scope.|
But so few of those who get much media attention – those that we hear and whom we’re listening to – devote themselves to an altruistic analyze before going public.
That’s how we get all this fragmented jig-saw puzzle pieces in a bag for ourselves to lay on our kitchen table. Consuming time we don’t have on our hands, demanding much insight.
There are knights like Al Gore, but Gore stands out perhaps because he’s so alone — and yet, too diplomatic (US Vice President as he was) and perhaps may we say “road-show” agenda focused to deliver that explosive force we common, caring people need to look at in order to finally engage our minds and mouths as well as our hands and feet in the endeavor needed for making a difference… a difference between the world as we know it vanishing or surviving.
Gore, this provident and solid Performer, Leader and Thinker, is most honorable and impressive in his endeavor on Anthropological domains. As is Musk, this provident and brilliant Innovator, Entrepreneur and Doer, in his endeavor on Technical trends and infrastructural domains. We wish for the world that somehow their personalities could merge together into one single person. Or, more feasibly, that the two would merge their domains and join forces into an endeavor for bringing forth solutions to our climate – energy interrelated (and plastic ocean waste, and drinking water shortage, i.a.) issues in order to save the planet and us on it.
Not all too naively anticipating that ta-da moment very soon, in this (thus far) 11-post blog we’ll instead try to convey to You what We can of that explosive force and that insight mentioned above, by speaking frankly and thus hopefully opening eyes and ears of those who feel a bit helpless before what to think and/or what to do. Hopefully that’ll at least bring forth some ta-da insight in our readers. So, …
Water and Air would preoccupy the world more if only people better understood Why they should — in a dual sense. We’ll try to help out…
Water exists in three states: frozen (ice, snow) — liquid (“water”) — gas (vapor, clouds).
» Ice & Snow: the warmer it gets, the nearer the melting point it approaches. At zero centigrades it melts and moves over to the liquid state. Archimedes’ principle has taught us all that an iceberg melting does not impact the sea level elevation since it is already submerged with its full weight into the water and thus impacts the sea level just as much as when all of it gets molten. Hence, Arctica (north) ice cap melt-off does not impact sea level elevations directly — though it gradually destroys the habitats and possibilities of survival for polar bears, seals and most other animals up there. In the ensuing stage however, the melt-off leaves vast polar areas that previously (through its once snowy white face) reflected sunlight back out into space (just like clouds do), and so indirectly those now darkened area surfaces instead absorb light and infrared radiation from the sun, thereby warming waters being in direct contact with the ice, and air. This melt-off thus generates a temperature rising and ice cap melting chain reaction.
Glaciers, on the other hand, rest on terra firma (solid ground), and did not impact sea level elevation where they rest. Not until the atmosphere gradually got and increasingly gets warmer and the net volume of ice and snow mass of every glacier hence diminishes – the melt-off surplus running out to the sea of the summer period not fully restored as snow onto land mass the following winter period – then sea level elevation is impacted and will thereof continue to rise as air temperatures continue to rise, year by year. The several kilometers thick ice cap on Antarctica, the same on Greenland, and all of Earth’s mountain glaciers are examples hereof.
» Liquid water: the warmer water gets, the more volume a certain fixed weight-unit occupies. This implies that even though there would be no annual net repletion to the world’s oceans from melting ice and snow, even then sea levels due to volume expansion would keep rising as long as air temperatures keep rising. The oceans also absorb carbondioxide (CO2) surplus from fossil fuel combustion and augmenting deforestation, hitherto roughly half of it, which besides sea acidification also contributes to elevating sea levels from this CO2 absorption induced volume expansion. Warm water also feeds and propels hurricanes (/cyclones/typhoons/tornados/trombs) and storms around the world — consequently: the warmer the ocean surface water, the more of those whirlwinds and storms by each season, and the more intense and devastating they will keep getting.
» Water vapor: As long as a water vapor molecule is “at large” in the atmosphere it remains invisible until it gets in contact with some particle that it can stick to. Such particle-vapor pairs form clouds, which per definition are visible and white and therefore deflect incoming sunlight back into space, serving as a cooling shield — clouds also reflect infra-red radiation from the ground level back down to Earth, increasing temperatures on cold days, but not nearly as much as they deflect sunlight. Free, unbound, invisible vapor molecules, on the other hand, together constitute a very powerful greenhouse engine because water vapor molecules – far more efficiently than CO2 – are partly blocking the heat radiation generated from Earth’s surface absorption of sun rays. Here we see a chain reaction: the warmer the air temperatures, the warmer the sea surfaces, the more vapor outlet into the atmosphere, which leads to an increasing greenhouse effect, which in turn leads to even higher air temperatures… and so on and so forth.
Energy cannot be destroyed, it can only be transformed, as we all have learned. Energy transformed into another energy form through combustion of e.g. hydrocarbons (CxHx), alcohols (CxHxOH) or pure carbon (C), simultaneously emits heat (i.e. engine or plant burner power, however some of this radiating out from the heated engine or by cooling it off) and waste gases such as CO2 and CO from the combustion reaction, hence leaving three legacy components from its transformation: heat (power), greenhouse gases (GHGs) as Energy bound into another compound, and other waste like nitric oxides (neutralized by catalytic converters in countries where mandatory in petrol/gas vehicles) and sulfur dioxide (turning into sulfur acid on contact with water/vapor, worst acidifyer, both aquatic and terrestrial). Carbon (C) reacts with oxygen (O) inside the combustion process; Some hydrocarbons drop off the hydrogen (H) portion and likewise react with oxygen, producing a new Energy form, free from any hydrogen but still holding the carbon C component intact — however this time compounded with new friends: one or two oxygen molecules (yielding CO or CO2).
! Mind that ! What this implies is none less than an Energy supply surplus up in the sky. An Energy repository just growing and growing, ever faster moving towards drowning us and society through sea level rises and river bed inundations, ever more powerfully producing never before seen hurricanes or ever longer lasting drought periods all over our planet. An Energy supply surplus up in the sky terrifying mankind, making us feel like mere lambs to the slaughter (well, excluding the Denialist part of humanity, anyway) — unable to act reasonably underneath it. Cause any endeavor today commenced or planned will reasonably and empirically be far, far too little and will come far, far too late — all being yields of long-term, low-strategy fumbling and bumbling by ideology-blinkered, economically or otherwise involved politicians and their corner-that-market tycoon soulmates. -> read more | order book here
But what if – instead of leaving this gigantic greenhouse gas Energy supply surplus, this recyclable Energy repository u n p e r t u b e d in the sky and building ineffectual pseudo energy systems walking around it like today – we would come up with hyper effective, perpetually cyclic, resource resilient, environmentally and economically sustainable, all clean and cheap solutions of r e t r a n s f o r m i n g this energy supply* surplus, this immense repository into something useful?
We at AES have.
We term this CCR — Carbon Capture and Recycle (alt. Reuse/ Regenerate/ Retransform/ Recur/ Reconvert/ Reactivate/ Recover/ Rejuvenate/ Recuperate).
Sci-No-Fi. Science, Not Fiction.
(*) Primarily CO2 extracted from the atmosphere, now 45% above pre-industrial levels, plus CO2 captured directly from industrial and power plant smokestacks, recycled and reused on the spot. Secondarily also CO2 captured directly from land/sea/air bound vehicles’ exhaust pipes, recycled in a catalytic converter** and shunted back into their fuel inlet during operation. Thirdly, methane CH4, now 185% above pre-industrial levels, extracted from the atmosphere for direct reuse as is or converted into e.g. methanol (methyl alcohol) or other hydrocarbons.
(**) Catalytic converters for transforming (neutralizing) nitric oxides NOx are already mandatory on vehicles in most countries and work just beautifully.
Sure, the world has seen scientists’ newsflashes on the theme of GHG recycling before, but research lab results have been all but encouraging — an all-physical lab setup is a way way too slow and costly approach to elaboration and testing of catalysts, so the researcher initiatives so to speak time out: re-prioritize focus, lose competence, close down out of money shortage or after a buyout by “some kickback perceiving a threat” (concluded by lack of market implementations), or after the latter themselves in fact posing threats to a lab or even furthering their action into mere homicide. -> read more
Nevertheless, the world will (be forced to) revert to this out of necessity, sooner or later (later as in “panicking around too late”). We say: the sooner the better — it could hardly be soon enough so let’s get going. This is where the necessity of an SBES (Simulation Based Engineering Science)* software catalyst elaboration approach with an integrated virtual lab setup – our solution – comes into the picture.
(*) SBES (Simulation Based Engineering Science) — Excerpt from the WTEC (World Technology Evaluation Center) panel report International Assessment of Research and Development in Simulation Based Engineering and Science, issued in 2006:
|” To define the real requirements for the implementation of SBES technologies, we require a new paradigm of software development. Such a fundamental change calls for a great deal of “out-of-the box” thinking about the way we approach software development and practice engineering. […] Not only will tomorrow’s software developers have to cope with more complex systems and heterogeneous hardware systems, but they will also have to understand the important details of the applications. “|
Our CatELab-APS/e3 simulation and integrated e-lab software is a forceful answer to that new paradigm of software development requirement!
-> (view also: MSBSE handbook | Wikipedia on web-based simulation | computer sim. | modeling & sim. | process sim.)
The following are hard facts, this is The Most Inconvenient Truth not even Al Gore (who in 2006 issued a book titled “An Inconvenient Truth“) would want us all to fully realize — cause it might evoke panic, resignation, anarchy (much worse than seen anywhere in history or in our day), war here and war there, soon everywhere:
If we just wait and see how those politician induced “head-in-the-sand arrangements” and short-sighted investments that the world can “boast” today will turn out, it is our rock solid conviction that we gradually, even rapidly will see the peoples of our planet exhibit exactly these above described developing stages on the road to total and irrevocable catastrophes turning any previous global or regional crisis, refugee catastrophe or even world war into mere tea parties or trifles. It is bad enough the US now got themselves a prime time Denialist for president, along with all their globalist evil corporations, but even with another candidate in his place there would be no remedy in sight, as far as the gathered initiatives launched up til now can be deemed.
The world’s development phases could perhaps best be described as follows: “75 years, 1940 – 2015: from the age of destruction to the age of information to the age of disinformation to the age of deception“.
– Now, for the next phase we have a choice: Will we opt for “100 years, 1940 – 2040: from the age of destruction to the age of information to the age of disinformation to the age of deception, to an age of perception, peace, prosperity… OR once again over to an age of destruction“?
These are our eligible options at hand. I think we’ve all had enough of destruction in the world, right? Foresight is the base of prevention, so let’s move from square 1 to 4C.
An Energy supply surplus up in the sky, yes… the world’s amassed scientists have established a pre-industrial (early 19th century) atmospheric level of 280 ppm CO2. There are other far worse though much less abundant GHGs like methane* (CH4) and nitrous oxide** (“laughing-gas”, N2O) to deal with in addition to CO2, but CO2 has the unpleasant property – besides blocking heat radiation from passing through the atmosphere on its way from Earth into space – of acidifying the oceans, thereby dissolving calcium so that all calcium-withholding life forms and living structures (tiny plankton, krill, various size fish, up to large coral reefs) see their skeletons and other calcium structures literally fade away, holding the threat of mass-species’ mass-extinction in its wings. Today’s atmospheric level is now moving upward from the 410 ppm mark. Thus, there is a surplus today of 410 – 280 = 130 ppm CO2 to get rid of — to be honest, no one is (slash should be) happy as it is and still Earth’s post-industrial air temperature climb is “only” 0.9 – 1.2 centigrades (0.9 was the word from Paris where That Deal was signed in 2015, 1.2 are the latest figures from leading statistical institutes), so how could we ever accept a 2.0 or even a 1.5 centigrade rise (which obviously would make Al Gore and other leading environmentalists and politicians happy enough) ? (*) Methane (CH4) is easily captured, a reusable fuel with no need for any reconversion. (**) Dinitrogenoxide (N2O) is not a fuel, but derived from use of artificial fertilizers, easily blocked through organic farming based on nature’s own fertilizers or animalic feces.
Besides those 130 ppm atmospheric CO2 the oceans and great lakes, as described above, have absorbed roughly half of all the CO2 surplus so far emitted, implying another 130 ppm CO2 component to be extracted* from the seas before everything’s back to normal, back to the pre-industrial era. (*) Once atmospheric CO2 extraction (or capturing) has commenced, the oceanic CO2 pressure will automatically adjust to this and in turn commence leaking CO2 back into the atmosphere.
So what we at AES wish to use this immense supply of energy for – this paramount natural resource hanging in the sky, today just a big dump doing nothing but cloud our minds – is to reconvert it into useful fuels and products like solid carbon, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, alcohols, oils, waxes, clean plastics, and other utility products today all extracted and produced from underground fossil coal, oil and gas:
By recycling GHGs in a perpetual cycle of Artificial Photosynthesis (APS) we would be able to:
» resolve an upcoming peak-oil crisis;
» get rid of sulfurous and dirty, expensive fossil coal, oil and gas;
» furnish the globe with clean, cheap fuels and other products;
» restore and regulate the planetary air (and hence ocean) temperatures;
» rewind the ocean and lake acidification!
Read all about this at our Website: -> arphosis.com
We ask you to chip in a Contribution and Back our Campaign at Indiegogo: -> CYBEREGG — Enairgy Regeneration (draft) as soon as it launches (imminently)!
Welcome in here with your reflections, thoughts, ideas – hows/whats/whos/whys/wheres/whens/whatevers – to your interest and ability. Together WE CAN AND WILL disrupt and rewire those heavy-weight companies and politicians, and finally get together as a unified caring, common people of the world, in order to get things done! No to Climate ignorance & insouciance, disregard & denial!
Here are all our posts in this blog:
Water. and Air. – – – – – – – – (2016 Nov 27)Facts. non-Alternative. – – – – – (2017 Feb 20) News. Terrifying. – – – – – – – (2017 Mar 29) Zero options? Never. – – – – – – (2016 Dec 05)Scenarios. and Implications. – – – – (2017 Jan 02)Gates Notes. on Climate-Energy. – – (2017 Jan 24)CCR – APS processes – – – – – – (2016 Dec 14)APS/e3 concept outlines – – – – – (2016 Dec 14)CatELab-APS/e3 research software – – (2016 Dec 14)CatELab & APS/e3 integrated processes – (2016 Dec 14)
Here is our corporate website & our funding campaign: